También les llevaría a la incursión de Europa central y del resto de la Europa Oriental para poder consolidar la conquista de Rusia. [129], Morgan writes that since much of what The Book of Marvels has to say about China is "demonstrably correct", any claim that Polo did not go to China "creates far more problems than it solves", therefore the "balance of probabilities" strongly suggests that Polo really did go to China, even if he exaggerated somewhat his importance in China. Marco Polo reports that he was moved to Hangzhou the following year, in 1284. Finalmente también fue Marco Polo el que más lejos viajó gracias a las circunstancias de su tiempo y, gracias a ello, Europa empezó a conocer a través del libro lugares que no se conocieron antes como Japón, Indonesia e Indochina. Assassin's Creed Manía (24 de octubre de 2011). [52] Interestingly, this circumstance does not appear in Polo's book of Travels. In fact, pasta had already been invented in Italy long time before Marco Polo's travels to Asia. Young readers are presented with the facts in this entertaining, highly readable Quien fue . Polo, Marco; Latham, Ronald (translator) (1958). Tras desviarse a Jerusalén para hacerse con el aceite de la lámpara del Santo Sepulcro, siguieron viaje hasta Layas donde se enteraron de que la elección papal había recaído precisamente en Tedaldo Visconti, que adoptó el nombre de Gregorio X. Regresaron de inmediato a Acre, en una galera facilitada por el rey León III de Armenia Menor, donde Visconti les facilitó nuevas credenciales además de hacer que les acompañaran dos frailes dominicos, aunque estos pronto abandonaron el largo viaje.[16]​. . En el transcurso del conflicto Marco fue capturado y encarcelado por los genoveses. [110] Haw also criticizes Wood's approach to finding mention of Marco Polo in Chinese texts by contending that contemporaneous Europeans had little regard for using surnames and that a direct Chinese transliteration of the name "Marco" ignores the possibility of him taking on a Chinese or even Mongol name with no bearing or similarity with his Latin name.[111]. [76] They were highly respected and sought after in the Mongolian court, and so Kublai Khan decided to decline the Polos' requests to leave China. [22]​, Marco Polo murió, después de redactar testamento, entre la puesta del sol y la medianoche del domingo 8 de enero de 1324,[23]​ fecha que podría corresponder al 9 de enero debido a la ley veneciana que fijaba el final del día en el momento de la puesta del sol. biography. [134] His accounts of salt production and revenues from the salt monopoly are also accurate, and accord with Chinese documents of the Yuan era. Marco Polo works when you have a moment to talk, even if your schedules don’t match. It has been supposed that these displacements are due to the intention to avoid further conflicts between the two. They later decided to return to their home. His wife, Donata, and his three daughters were appointed by him as co-executrices. Nascido na cidade de Veneza, na Itália, Marco Polo veio ao mundo em uma época em que os europeus não tinham conhecimento algum sobre a Ásia. [19], The first English translation is the Elizabethan version by John Frampton published in 1579, The most noble and famous travels of Marco Polo, based on Santaella's Castilian translation of 1503 (the first version in that language). El escudo familiar de los Pol contiene tres pájaros de agua, aves que recibían el nombre de "pol" en Dalmacia del Sur, mientras que en Venecia se les llamaban "pola", palabra de la cual se cree se derivaron los apellidos "Polo" y "Pollo" en Italia. Haw points out that Polo himself appears to state only that he had been an emissary of the khan, in a position with some esteem. [10][11][12] His father, Niccolò Polo, had his household in Venice and left Marco's mother pregnant in order to travel to Asia with his brother Maffeo Polo. [28] His father later married Floradise Polo (née Trevisan). Marco Polo (Venecia, c. 15 de septiembre de 1254-ib., 8 o 9 de enero de 1324)[1]​[2]​ fue un mercader y viajero italiano,[3]​[4]​[5]​ famoso por los relatos que se le atribuyen sobre el viaje a Asia Oriental, manuscritos por Rustichello de Pisa con el título original de Il Milione, y conocido en español como Los viajes de Marco Polo, narración que dio a conocer en la Europa medieval las tierras y civilizaciones del Asia Central y China. Polo had at times refuted the 'marvellous' fables and legends given in other European accounts, and despite some exaggerations and errors, Polo's accounts have relatively few of the descriptions of irrational marvels. [117], If this identification is correct, there is a record about Marco Polo in Chinese sources. [27] Polo is clearly mentioned again after 1305 in Maffeo's testament from 1309–1310, in a 1319 document according to which he became owner of some estates of his deceased father, and in 1321, when he bought part of the family property of his wife Donata. Se hace referencia a los contactos entre romanos y el Imperio chino, pero este también estableció contacto con los romanos con anterioridad a la Ruta de la Seda. En los relatos se afirma que Marco Polo fue gobernador durante tres años de la ciudad china de, También según su relato, los Polo ayudaron a. Esta página se editó por última vez el 19 ene 2021 a las 20:19. El Imperio mongol fue instituido por Genghis Kan en 1206. Llegaron a Acre, donde se encontraron de nuevo con Tedaldo Visconti, que quizá estaba allí en relación con la cruzada en la que estaba embarcado el futuro rey Eduardo I de Inglaterra. In fact, Polo does not even imply that he had led 1,000 personnel. Marco Polo fue un comerciante veneciano al que se le atribuye haber viajado a China y vivir más de 20 años allí, pero ¿lo hizo realmente? The Polos wanted to sail straight into China, but the ships there were not seaworthy, so they continued overland through the Silk Road, until reaching Kublai's summer palace in Shangdu, near present-day Zhangjiakou. [47] The company continued its activities and Marco soon became a wealthy merchant. More precisely, he was nicknamed Messer Marco Milioni (Mr Marco Millions). It is possible that he became a government official;[29] he wrote about many imperial visits to China's southern and eastern provinces, the far south and Burma. Hug 55m. With people you love, texts and social media don’t give you the whole picture and calls are hard to schedule. For example, Sinologist Francis Woodman Cleaves noted that Polo's account of the voyage of the princess Kököchin from China to Persia to marry the Īl-khān in 1293 has been confirmed by a passage in the 15th-century Chinese work Yongle Encyclopedia and by the Persian historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani in his work Jami' al-tawarikh. Viaggio ai confini del Medioevo", Collezione Le Scie. A su regreso de China en 1295 (escoltando a una princesa china llamada Kokacín), la familia de Marco Polo se estableció en Venecia donde se convirtió en una sensación y atrajo a multitud de oyentes, que a duras penas creían sus historias sobre la lejana China. (2010). Biografía de Marco Polo www.librosmaravillosos.com C. Verdejo 6 Preparado por Patricio Barros Capítulo 2 Infancia En el «palazzo» veneciano de los Polo había alegría y dolor, risas y lágrimas. [5][6] As part of this appointment, Marco also traveled extensively inside China, living in the emperor's lands for 17 years and seeing many things that had previously been unknown to Europeans. [141] Marco Polo describes in his book a food similar to "lasagna", but he uses a term with which he was already familiar. Las pocas noticias que se tenían de lo que estaba más allá eran generalmente confusas y muy mitificadas. Estas traducciones, incluso las más tempranas, son a menudo bastante diferentes entre sí y contienen numerosos detalles contradictorios y controvertidos. Her book can only be described as deceptive, both in relation to the author and to the public at large. Marco Polo was born in 1254 in Venice, capital of the Venetian Republic. Tomo primo 2.. Pubblicato ... da Fr. [95], Modern studies have further shown that details given in Marco Polo's book, such as the currencies used, salt productions and revenues, are accurate and unique. [33]​ Además probablemente proviene del relato de Marco Polo la primera mención a Japón (Cipango) en la literatura occidental, un caso único antes del siglo XVI d. C..[34]​, Algunos historiadores han hecho notar que la redacción formularia y estereotipada de las descripciones que se ofrecen en el libro de lugares y acontecimientos ocurridos en el sur de China contrasta con la más detallada y concreta en cuanto los sucesos se producen en el norte. The Muslim traveller Ibn Battuta, who asked about the wall when he visited China during the Yuan dynasty, could find no one who had either seen it or knew of anyone who had seen it, suggesting that while ruins of the wall constructed in the earlier periods might have existed, they were not significant or noteworthy at that time. "[114], Some scholars believe that Marco Polo exaggerated his importance in China. Such detailed descriptions are not found in other non-Chinese sources, and their accuracy is supported by archaeological evidence as well as Chinese records compiled after Polo had left China. Marco Polo (Venecia, actual Italia, 1254 - id., 1324) Explorador y mercader veneciano. "Grant Sire, nos avon avech nos en nostre mesnie homes qe firont tielz mangan qe giteront si grant pieres qe celes de la cité ne poront sofrir mes se renderont maintenant. [96] Other accounts have also been verified; for example, when visiting Zhenjiang in Jiangsu, China, Marco Polo noted that a large number of Christian churches had been built there. Es de destacar la leyenda del Preste Juan, un mítico rey cristiano que se suponía existía rodeado de infieles en Asia Central. Divisata con cinque cronologie. [24][25] His grandfather, Andrea Polo of the parish of San Felice, had three sons, Maffeo, yet another Marco, and the traveller's father Niccolò. At the time, there was open discussion of a possible Christian-Mongul alliance with an anti-Islamic function. [121][118], Stephen G. Haw challenges this idea that Polo exaggerated his own importance, writing that, "contrary to what has often been said ... Marco does not claim any very exalted position for himself in the Yuan empire. pàg.) Unfortunately, the party was soon attacked by bandits, who used the cover of a sandstorm to ambush them. [cita requerida]. This sentence in The Book of Marvels was interpreted as Marco Polo was "the governor" of the city of "Yangiu" Yangzhou for three years, and later of Hangzhou. [56], He divided up the rest of his assets, including several properties, among individuals, religious institutions, and every guild and fraternity to which he belonged. [29] The exact date of their arrival is unknown, but scholars estimate it to be between 1271 and 1275. [109] Historian Igor de Rachewiltz strongly criticised Wood's arguments in his review of her book. [127] Archaeologists have also pointed out that Polo may have mixed up the details from the two attempted invasions of Japan by Kublai Khan in 1274 and 1281. London and New York: Routledge, 2006. Según los relatos, Marco Polo nació y aprendió a comerciar en Venecia (República de Venecia)[8]​ mientras su padre Niccolò Polo y su tío Maffeo Polo, viajaban por Asia donde habrían conocido a Kublai Kan. En 1269 ambos regresaron a Venecia y vieron por primera vez a Marco, llevándolo con ellos —según los relatos— en un nuevo viaje comercial a Asia, en el que habrían visitado Armenia, Persia y Afganistán, recorriendo toda la Ruta de la Seda, hasta llegar a Mongolia y China. Marco Polo nasceu em 1254, [nota 1] [7] na República de Veneza. [53] On January 8, 1324, despite physicians' efforts to treat him, Polo was on his deathbed. Marco Polo fue un viajero veneciano, dedicado al comercio, famoso por los relatos de sus aventuras, sobre todo las de sus viajes a Asia Oriental, escritas por Rustichello de Pisa, su compañero de viaje con quien estuvo preso.. Nació en la República de Venecia, al norte de Italia, cerca del 15 de septiembre de 1254.Hijo de Niccolo Polo y Nicole Anna Defuseh una pareja … [48] In 1300, he married Donata Badoèr, the daughter of Vitale Badoèr, a merchant. [29], Marco Polo returned to Venice in 1295 with his fortune converted into gemstones. Marco Polo recogió sus experiencias en un diario, hecho que ha permitido que su nombre perdure a lo largo de los siglos. Gracias a ello llegó a conocer las vastas regiones de China y los numerosos logros de la civilización china, muchos de los cuales eran más avanzados que los contemporáneos europeos. [125][126], A number of errors in Marco Polo's account have been noted: for example, he described the bridge later known as Marco Polo Bridge as having twenty-four arches instead of eleven or thirteen. Another controversial claim is at chapter 145 when the Book of Marvels states that the three Polos provided the Mongols with technical advice on building mangonels during the Siege of Xiangyang, Adonc distrent les .II. This official is actually mentioned in the local gazette Zhishun Zhenjian zhi under the name "Ma Xuelijisi" and the qualification of "General of Third Class". Viajar era mucho más lento que hoy, y muy poca gente viajaba a otros continentes. For instance, did Polo exert "political authority" (seignora) in Yangzhou or merely "sojourn" (sejourna) there. While the Italian missionary Odoric of Pordenone who visited Yuan China mentioned footbinding (it is however unclear whether he was merely relaying something he had heard as his description is inaccurate),[103] no other foreign visitors to Yuan China mentioned the practice, perhaps an indication that the footbinding was not widespread or was not practised in an extreme form at that time. (Venècia, 15 de setembre de 1254 – Venècia, 8 de gener de 1324) va ser un explorador i mercader, el més famós dels viatgers de la ruta de la Seda.Els seus viatges queden recollits a Il Milione.. Niccolò, el pare de Marco Polo i el seu oncle Matteo ja havien realitzat viatges a Àsia abans que Marco hi anés amb ells. II, "GREGORIO X, beato in "Enciclopedia dei Papi, "F. Wood's Did Marco Polo Go To China? A preference for natural materials, high-quality workmanship and special details characterize the individual style of this international brand with Scandinavian roots, in keeping with the philosophy of its founders: The freedom to be yourself. He was released in 1299, became a wealthy merchant, married, and had three children. Oír mencionar el nombre de Marco Polo nos traslada a una época en la que viajar no era solo una aventura, sino que era una peligrosísima empresa solo al alcance de unos pocos. [54] He also wrote off multiple debts including 300 lire that his sister-in-law owed him, and others for the convent of San Giovanni, San Paolo of the Order of Preachers, and a cleric named Friar Benvenuto. (1971). [14]​ Una de las rutas comerciales que de allí partían era la del mar Negro y en ella se especializaron, hasta el punto de que disponían de una casa en el puerto de Soldaia, el principal emporio comercial italiano de Crimea.[15]​. Elvin concludes that "those who doubted, although mistaken, were not always being casual or foolish", but "the case as a whole had now been closed": the book is, "in essence, authentic, and, when used with care, in broad terms to be trusted as a serious though obviously not always final, witness. La familia Polo entró al patriciado veneciano en el siglo XIV, bastante después de la Serrata del Consejo Mayor. The accusation was that Boluo had walked on the same side of the road as a female courtesan, in contravention of the order for men and women to walk on opposite sides of the road inside the city. Unlike other video apps, you don’t need to be live. Reviewing Haw's book, Peter Jackson (author of The Mongols and the West) has said that Haw "must surely now have settled the controversy surrounding the historicity of Polo's visit to China". [13]​ Después de la toma de Constantinopla de 1204 Venecia poseía su propio barrio en la ciudad, además de controlar el puerto, y muchos venecianos se instalaron allí, entre ellos los Polo. [37], They returned to Venice in 1295, after 24 years, with many riches and treasures. Her conclusion fails to consider all the evidence supporting Marco Polo's credibility. Durante la Cuarta Cruzada, por sugerencia veneciana, los cruzados saquearon Constantinopla, decapitando el Imperio bizantino y conquistando numerosos territorios. [90], Since its publication, some have viewed the book with skepticism. [129] Rachewiltz argued that Marco Polo's account, in fact, allows the Persian and Chinese sources to be reconciled – by relaying the information that two of the three envoys sent (mentioned in the Chinese source and whose names accord with those given by Polo) had died during the voyage, it explains why only the third who survived, Coja/Khoja, was mentioned by Rashìd al-Dìn. Marco Polo había regresado de sus viajes trayendo consigo grandes riquezas, entre las cuales quizás la más valiosa era la experiencia acumulada a lo largo de veinticuatro años de ausencia. En la primera mitad del siglo XIV d. C. en su obra Imago Mundi seu Chronica, el fraile dominico Jacopo d'Acqui afirmó que Marco fue hecho prisionero en 1296 tras una batalla marítima entre mercaderes genoveses y venecianos en las cercanías de Layas, aunque la fecha real de la batalla corresponde a 1294, el año anterior a la llegada de Marco a Venecia. Larner John, Marco Polo and the discovery of the world, Yale University Press, 1999. El manuscrito original, probablemente escrito en francés antiguo o francoitaliano, no ha sobrevivido, pero el libro,[19]​ Il milione (‘El millón’, más conocido en español como Los viajes de Marco Polo o Libro de las maravillas) tuvo rápido éxito y fue traducido pronto a muchas lenguas europeas. [27] His relation with a certain Marco Polo, who in 1300 was mentioned with riots against the aristocratic government, and escaped the death penalty, as well as riots from 1310 led by Bajamonte Tiepolo and Marco Querini, among whose rebels were Jacobello and Francesco Polo from another family branch, is unclear. [8] A data e localização exatas são desconhecidas. There, an envoy from the Levant invited them to meet Kublai Khan, who had never met Europeans. According to de Rachewiltz, the concordance of Polo's detailed account of the princess with other independent sources that gave only incomplete information is proof of the veracity of Polo's story and his presence in China. [113] Igor de Rachewiltz's review, which refutes Wood's points, concludes with a strongly-worded condemnation: "I regret to say that F. W.'s book falls short of the standard of scholarship that one would expect in a work of this kind. [68], The book opens with a preface describing his father and uncle travelling to Bolghar where Prince Berke Khan lived. The 1938 English translation by A.C. Moule and Paul Pelliot is based on a Latin manuscript found in the library of the Cathedral of Toledo in 1932, and is 50% longer than other versions. Existe muy escasa información sobre Marco Polo y su familia aparte de la contenida en el libro que relata su viaje. [71] He also inquired about the Pope and Church in Rome. A la curiosidad por esos bárbaros, tenidos hasta entonces como seres casi mitológicos, se le suma en lo político la posibilidad de obtener un aliado contra el enemigo islámico, una forma más ventajosa de negociar con Oriente en lo económico, y un deseo evangelizador, dada la gran tolerancia religiosa de los mongoles. Giulio Busi, "Marco Polo. [60][61], Polo related his memoirs orally to Rustichello da Pisa while both were prisoners of the Genova Republic. According to the 15th-century humanist Giovanni Battista Ramusio, his fellow citizens awarded him this nickname when he came back to Venice because he kept on saying that Kublai Khan's wealth was counted in millions. A Venetian in the Realm of Khubilai Khan. A causa de ello, Venecia y otros puertos italianos ganaron importancia y comenzaron una política comercial agresiva para explotar estas rutas comerciales. Asiatische Studien 51.3 (1997): 719-728", "The Travels of Marco Polo – World Digital Library", "The most noble and famous travels of Marco Polo, together with the travels of Nicoláo de' Conti", "Frammento del "Milione" di Marco Polo – RIALFrI", "Apologia de'padri domenicani missionarii della China, o pvro risposta al libro del P. Le Tellier ... intitolato "difesa de nuovi Cristiani" ...", "Galleria de'Sommi Pontefici, patriarchi, arcivescovi, e vescovi dell'ordine de'Predicatori. El mismo Cristóbal Colón tenía una copia, con anotaciones manuscritas suyas en los márgenes, que todavía se conserva. In Encyclopædia Britannica. [20], However, since also his father Niccolò was nicknamed Milione,[21] 19th-century philologist Luigi Foscolo Benedetto was persuaded that Milione was a shortened version of Emilione, and that this nickname was used to distinguish Niccolò's and Marco's branch from other Polo families. Polo supuestamente dictó su obra a un amanuense, Rustichello de Pisa, quien fue su auténtico autor, basándose en relatos de comerciantes italianos y en su fantasía mientras estuvo preso en Génova en 1298 y 1299; Marco Polo solo es el personaje novelesco protagonista. Their return to Italy in order to "go to Venice and visit their household" is described in The Travels of Marco Polo as follows: "...they departed from Acre and went to Negropont, and from Negropont they continued their voyage to Venice. However, he was also nicknamed Milione during his lifetime (which in Italian literally means 'Million'). Posee una serie homónima en Netflix, Lorenzo Richelmy interpreta a un joven Marco Polo que pasa de ser prisionero de Kublai Khan (Benedict Wong) a convertirse en uno de sus mejores aliados y amigos. Always in the gazette, it is said Ma Xuelijsi was an assistant supervisor in the province of Zhenjiang for three years, and that during this time he founded two Christian churches. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time. In his writings, the Dominican brother Jacopo d'Acqui explains why his contemporaries were sceptical about the content of the book. [106], In addition to Haw, a number of other scholars have argued in favour of the established view that Polo was in China in response to Wood's book. This account of the Orient provided the Europeans with a clear picture of the East's geography and ethnic customs and was the first Western record of porcelain, coal, gunpowder, paper money, and some Asian plants and exotic animals. [33][34][25] Meanwhile, Marco Polo's mother died, and an aunt and uncle raised him. At the council, Pope Gregory X promulgated a new Crusade to start in 1278 in liaison with the Mongols. No obstante, hay quienes afirman que su verdadero nombre y apellido eran Marc Pol, apellido que, efectivamente, tuvo su primera aparición en Dalmacia. [84], Apparently, from the very beginning, Marco's story aroused contrasting reactions, as it was received by some with a certain disbelief. [54] The church was entitled by law to a portion of his estate; he approved of this and ordered that a further sum be paid to the convent of San Lorenzo, the place where he wished to be buried. 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