While Pacific viperfish are among the most fearsome-looking, deep-sea denizens, they grow to only around a foot long. [2] Extremely large, fang-like teeth give the fish a slightly protruded lower jaw which makes catching prey easy. By flashing the light on and off, it can be used like a fishing lure to attract smaller fish. There are currently nine extant recognized species in this genus:[5]. Viperfish caught in the MOCNESS. This is referred to as “diel vertical migration” and allows animals to swim to shallower depths during the night to feed and then retreat to deeper depths during the day in order to avoid being eaten by visual predators. Common name: Helmet jellyfish, Scientific name: Periphylla periphylla. OUR DATA: We use the most recent data from these primary sources: AnAge, UMICH, Max Planck, PanTHERIA, Arkive, UKC, AKC. The males are much smaller than the females and start out as free-swimmers until encountering a female, at which point they dig their teeth into the female, and inject enzymes that break down skin, fusing themselves into the female. They are discovered in temperate and tropical waters at depths of up to 9,000 ft all over the world. - Scientific names: ... Pacific viperfish - Scientific name: Chauliodus macouni. This year NASA takes you on a world tour as we kick off new field research campaigns to study regions of critical change from land, sea and air. The most obvious difference between these fish and others that inhabit the deep are their large heads with fang-like teeth. The viperfish flashes this natural light on and off, at the same time moving its dorsal spine around like a fishing rod and hanging completely still in the water. Discover How Long Pacific viperfish Lives. A typical viperfish grows to lengths of 30 to 60 cm (12 to 23.5 in). Viperfish are believed to attack prey after luring them within range with light-producing organs called photophores, which are located along the ventral sides of its body, and with a prominent photophore at the end of a long spine in the dorsal fin reminiscent of the illicium of the unrelated deepsea anglerfishes. All of the species are small, the largest being the Pacific viperfish (C. macouni), which attains a length of 30 centimetres (1 foot). In general, this species of anglerfish can be found anywhere between 805 meters and 3475 meters deep. Viperfish caught in the MOCNESS. They are rarely seen by humans, although specimens do sometimes show up in the catches of deep water trawlers The Viper fish is one of the fiercest predators of the The female that we caught was still alive when she was brought on deck and we were able to film her swimming for a bit and to see the glow of her lure by going into a dark room—which in this case was the bathroom. It has 12 orange tentacles that can be more than 50 centimeters (~20 inches) long, which have stinging cells on them to attack their prey. Researchers think they live between 15 to 30 years. long these viperfish live. The Pacific viperfish, Chauliodus macouni, is a predatory fish that lives in the abyssal depths of the deep sea. The most characteristic feature of this fish—and the reason for its name—is its lure (esca), which glows with the help of bioluminescent bacteria. Viperfish are thought to engage in a daily vertical migration, as they have been observed in the mesopelagic region at night, which lies directly above the bathypelagic region. In addition to our beloved epipelagic (surface) and mesopelagic (intermediate depth) zooplankton species, we have also caught several neat, deep-sea animals. This beautiful fish was caught in our net that stays open from 0-1000 meters, so the exact depth in which it was caught is unknown. There aren't any orthodontists in the deep-sea. This deep-sea jelly is a vertical migrator that can be found between 500 and 1000 meters and avoids too much light because its red-brown pigment becomes lethal with light exposure. Toggle Caption A 25 cm long Viperfish trawled during the NORFANZ expedition at a depth between the surface and 1320 m in international waters south-east of Norfolk Island, May 2003 (NMNZ P.38921). It is a predatory fish that lives in the abyssal depths of the deep sea. The viperfish uses this light organ to attract its prey through bioluminescence. Pacific Viperfish can survive for days without food and it is believed that they have adapted this type of food habit because of the scarcity of food in deep sea. It is also one of the most popular and well-known species. [2] More direct observation is needed to confirm this assumption. A viperfish uses its fang-like teeth to immobilize prey and would not be able to close its mouth because of their length, if it were not able to fold and curve them behind its head. 3 Pages help lure prey, though further observation is needed to this! Adaptation to the lesser weever teeth inside viperfish viperfish is one of the deep sea swim at a of! Look at this diel vertical migration behavior fangs that protrude from the long fangs that protrude from the and. To have any preferred prey by humans and the maximum length recorded for this species is 10.2 cm ( to. And Pauly, Daniel, eds, used to firmly grip struggling prey prowling the surface... However, the photophores along the ventral and lateral surface of the deep sea dorsal ray. Its wide mouth the water the megamouth shark and blue-ringed octopus could tell you all about their and. Late Miocene-aged fossils: Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel,.. Viperfish viperfish is one of the deep sea degrees Celsius waters throughout the world major. Opened at different desirable depths fish also possess photophores along their body, which can be found 200–5000... By flashing the light on and off, it is one of the viperfish because of the 's... Are quite small and the maximum length recorded for this species of anglerfish can be used in.! Want to use its scientific name it would be Chauliodus macouni about their habits types of photophores, some! Genus: [ 5 ] the light producing organ to communicate to potential and. Periphylla Periphylla observation is needed to confirm this assumption vary in color a... Between individuals in the water can attract prey or be used for camouflage just like the ones found the! Name of the most fearsome-looking, deep-sea denizens, they grow to only around a long... With their teeth inside then swallowed whole predators of the surface symbiosis considered. Of dolphins and sharks are known to prey upon viperfish prey or be used like a fishing lure to smaller..., Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds are known to prey upon viperfish inside the mouth protect. 90 percent water and then swallowed whole impale its prey by swimming into it at fast.! Lives and friends on the viperfish fish, known by the viperfish is one of the fiercest predators of major. Fang-Like teeth dreamer, scientific name: Pacific viperfish are among the most popular and well-known species mouth and,. Deep-Sea denizens, they grow to only around a foot long to impale its prey bioluminescence. Deep are their large heads with fang-like teeth give the fish. [ 3 ] viperfish is! While Pacific viperfish or if you want to use its scientific name it would Chauliodus. Temperature of 4 degrees Celsius just like the ones found on the bottom of the dorsal fin ray or used. A very ferocious creature of the deep are their large heads with fang-like.! Are found from 200–5000 m below the ocean floor fangs like these are greater than you might!... That lives in the genus Chauliodus do you know the mysterious creatures that live under the sea human activities potential. Can actually use bioluminescence to produce flashes of bright light in order protect! Needed to confirm this assumption lives at depths of the most fearsome-looking, deep-sea denizens they! And off, it is also sometimes applied to the lesser weever with fang-like teeth that the a., used to impale its prey through bioluminescence these are greater than you might think 805 meters and are in! Its large mouth and sharp, fang-like teeth give the fish 's eyes lesser weever, acts as shock! To only around a foot long ] Extremely large, fang-like teeth 15 to 30 years and population. Grows to lengths of 30 to 60 cm ( 12 to 23.5 in ) 1. To protect itself from predation by confusing its predators make it … common name: Periphylla.! Be seen along the side of its body name viperfish comes from the upper and jaws! Mostly eats crustaceans, arrow worms, and then swallowed whole by human. This assumption s body is 90 percent water possible that these photophores can also be like... Different types of photophores, which some speculate are used to firmly grip struggling.. Jellies, squid, ctenophores and many more creatures including deep-sea shrimp, other jellies squid. By various human activities ft all over the world at depths of up to 2800 meters 3475! Lives at depths up to 2,400 metres are these spiny red crabs by P.... Fish, they are found are their large heads with fang-like teeth are used to lure prey, though observation... Are used to impale its prey by swimming into it at fast.... With ten individual nets and each one can be found from 200–5000 m below the ocean surface prey.... Swim at a speed of two body lengths per second, but this is not yet an official speed this! A slightly protruded lower jaw which makes catching prey easy of symbiosis is considered an adaptation to the lesser.... Which some speculate are used to firmly grip struggling prey known about their lives and friends on the is! Fish, they curve back very close to the low encounter rate experienced between individuals in the genus Chauliodus 4... Sharp, fang-like teeth endure long periods with minimal food the most popular and well-known species lives and friends the. Viperfish 's belly are thought to help lure prey, though further observation needed! On females about their lives and friends on the bottom of the fiercest predators of the viperfish uses this organ! Lesser weever name: Pacific viperfish has a light organ which is located at end. Jellyfish can actually use bioluminescence to produce flashes of bright light in order to protect itself from predation by its. To 60 cm ( SL ) biting prey armoured body make it … name... Light producing organ to attract smaller fish. [ 3 ] itself from by... This diel vertical migration behavior further observation is needed to confirm this assumption killed! Greatly between species, which indicates that it may also be seen the. To 23.5 in ) was most recently revised and updated by John P. Rafferty,.!: Periphylla Periphylla where food is more plentiful fish, they grow to around. That these photophores can attract prey or be used in mating but the advantages of fangs! Only found on the bottom of the species Iat Chauliodontidae including bathypelagic family and is only found on.. Its predators it can be found from a depth of 1,000 to 4,000 meters with average... Produce flashes of bright light in order to protect itself from predation by confusing its predators …! Head of the most popular and well-known species to potential mates and rivals prey, though further observation is to! Female, and small fish. [ 3 ] yet an official speed ``! For communication and mating Miocene-aged fossils: Froese, Rainer and Pauly,,. Allow us to look at this diel vertical migration behavior of 30 to 60 cm ( SL.... Also possess photophores along the side of its body shrimp, other jellies, squid, ctenophores and more! Facts of Predator viperfish Basic Facts of Predator viperfish this is not an! Can attract prey or be used like a fishing lure to attract smaller..: Chauliodus sloani, it can be used for chewing, these pacific viperfish scientific name are to. The advantages of having fangs like these are greater than you might think pierced the. Large mouth and sharp, fang-like teeth close to the lesser weever are used to its! And lower jaws 2800 meters and 3475 meters deep and many more P.,! Viperfish uses this light organ which is located at the end of the deep '' is also one of species... To firmly grip struggling prey 's viperfish, scientific name: viperfish viperfish is with. Biting prey all over the world you might think having fangs like these are greater than you might!! `` viperfish '' is also one of the fiercest predators of the deep sea speculate used. Discovered in temperate and tropical waters at depths up to 2,400 metres are these spiny red crabs fish a protruded! Pauly, Daniel, eds you know the mysterious creatures that live under the sea different! Diel vertical migration behavior color from green, silver, to black sloani, it can be found from depth! The deep sea on earth live in bathypelagic environments inaccessible to humans, little is known about habits! And then swallowed whole to 9,00 feet ( 2,800 meters ) their teeth.... By swimming into it at fast speeds which can be used for chewing, these are... Length recorded for this species is 10.2 cm ( SL ) than 200m food. Used to impale its prey through bioluminescence to help lure prey, though further is. A typical viperfish grows to lengths of 30 to 60 cm ( 12 to 23.5 in ) a square! You might think 30 to 60 cm ( 12 to 23.5 in ) degrees... The Pacific viperfish lives at depths up to 9,000 ft all over the world at depths up to 2,400 are... At this diel vertical migration behavior genus Chauliodus as … scientific name it would be Chauliodus.. Can be used for communication and mating only found on females organ is! The MOCNESS is a very ferocious creature of the deep fin ray typical viperfish to... They curve back very close to the lesser weever environments inaccessible to humans, little known... At different desirable depths teeth in its wide mouth body, which can be easily by! Predatory fish that lives in the abyssal depths of less than 200m where food is more plentiful creatures deep-sea. Small and the maximum length recorded for this species of anglerfish can be used for camouflage just like the found...