Culture Name Pasadena, Calif., 1973. 4. New York, 1976. That population is at an increased risk for several diseases and faces many barriers to accessing the American health care system. Health Care Providers' Handbook on Muslim Patients is a 22-page document prepared by Queensland Health in Australia. The Middle East is the birthplace of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, all monotheistic religions that grew from the same tradition. "New Spells for Old: Expectations and Realities of Western Medicine in a Remote Tribal Society in Yemen, Arabia." . Research indicates that close to 94% of Middle East's population belonged to Islam. If you’re interested in this area of the world, you’ll want to know the heads of state in the region, acronyms people use in the Middle East, and some basic Islamic terms, because many — although by no means most — of the world’s Muslims reside here. In Egypt, for example, a class of spiritist healers known as munaggimīn, who may be either male or female, specialize in diagnostic clairvoyance and the treatment of angered spirits. %PDF-1.5 Identification. The Middle East branch of the Faith & Belief Forum, based in Jerusalem, runs a ground-breaking project for improved intercultural relations in the healthcare sector. London, 1934. Philosophical Perspectives, Health and Disease: V. The Experience of Health and Illness, Health and Human Services Department, United States, Health and Long-Term Care Program Integration. /Filter /FlateDecode As with cupping and cautery, the use of prophylactic and curative amulets dates to pre-Islamic Arabic folk medicine; however, the use of amulets was not denounced by the prophet Muḥammad and was eventually incorporated into prophetic medicine. By the sixteenth-century, cults of popular Islamic mystics, known as Ṣūfīs or marabouts, began to proliferate in the countries of North Africa. For this reason, they provide notable examples. London, 1980. Encyclopedia of Religion. Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. In many cases, pilgrimages and healing rituals are undertaken during the exact hour of the Friday communal noon prayer—the most important one in the Islamic weekly cycle of thirty-five prayers. 189–210. The Middle East is a fascinating region with complex cultures, religions, and relationships. 271–297. In Mormons and Muslims, edited by Spencer J. Palmer, pp. Journal of Men's Studies 10 (2002): 343–359. Strong religion beliefs often govern family life and their way of life. Relationships between Middle Eastern patients and Western health care professionals are often troubled by mutual misunderstanding of culturally influenced values and communication styles. Saints of the Atlas. Provo, Utah, 1983. In the World Health Organization’s (WHO) World Health Report issued in 2000, the UAE ranked 27 in the world for its performance. How This Impacts Care •Patient brings 1 or 2 additional people to visit who listen carefully for patient and may answer for patient. When considering the spread of knowledge, the Middle East is strategically important in a geographical sense – namely, Golden Age medicine was founded by integrating healing traditions of the Ancient Greeks and Romans in the West, along with those of the Persians and Indians in the East. Early, Evelyn A. Baladi Women of Cairo: Playing with an Egg and a Stone. Extended Abstract: Constituting only a small fraction of immigrants living in the U.S., Arab/ Middle Eastern immigrants have been overshadowed in the academic literature on migration, health and religion by other immigrant groups such as Latino and Asian immigrants. "Ethno-Ophthalmology in the Egyptian Delta: An Historical Systems Approach to Ethnomedicine in the Middle East." Family is extremely important to Middle Eastern cultures and usually extends to aunts, uncles, cousins, etc. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. HEALING Apart from being the largest religion in the Middle East, it is also one of the largest religions in the world. . "Healing and Medicine: Popular Healing Practices in Middle Eastern Cultures Islam is the most widely followed religion in the Middle East. PwC takes a highly holistic approach to the health industries sector in the Middle East. 86–106. Middle Eastern religion, any of the religious beliefs, attitudes, and practices developed in the ancient Middle East (extending geographically from Iran to Egypt and from Anatolia and the Aegean Sea to the Arabian Peninsula and temporally from about 3000 to 330 bc, when Alexander the Great conquered much of the area). Whereas biomedicine is viewed for the most part as being ḥalāl, or compatible with Islamic doctrine, many alternative healing practices are considered ḥaram by religiously literate Muslims and conservative Islamists (so-called fundamentalists), who see these practices as being "against God," "against the religion," or "like believing in something besides God." Health care organizations should implement strategies to recruit, retain, and promote at all levels of the organization a diverse staff and leadership that are representative of the demographic characteristics of the service area. Social Science and Medicine 27 (1988): 233–240. The study of mental health in the Middle East is an area of research that continues to grow in its scope and content. Nonetheless, etiological beliefs about illness range from naturalistic (physical) to personalistic (social), to supernatural (spiritual), as is also common in many other parts of the world. Dec. 15, 2020. Middle East's Muslim population accounts for roughly 20% of the world's Muslim population. Biegman, Nicolaas H. Egypt: Moulids, Saints, Sufis. For example, in Arabic-speaking northern Sudan, where zār is actively practiced, infertile women suffering from poor self-images are the primarily members of the zār cult. Sociological Perspectives, Health and Disease: III. So are attempts by the Saudis to reheat divisions between Sunnis and Shia. Although cupping has been reported for other parts of the Middle East as well, it is described much more frequently than cautery in reports on Egypt. The spread of Islam is closely linked with the history of the Middle East as the converts established some caliphates with their own laws based on Islamic law. It is fair to conclude that Islam—at least in its more populist form—has always been a major influence on the healing practices, pilgrimages, and rituals that continue, unabated, among the poorer urban and rural communities in the Middle East in the early twenty-first century. Health care professionals, however, are still fairly unfamiliar with the unique cultural char-acteristics of Middle Easterners when they come for health care and are often apt to viewthem as "difficult" patients. Inhorn, Marcia C. Local Babies, Global Science: Gender, Religion, and In Vitro Fertilization in Egypt. In Women in the Muslim World, edited by Lois Beck and Nikki Keddie, pp. Indeed zār has been described by some scholars as a proto-feminist challenge to women's objectification and subordination (Boddy, 1989), a way to challenge authority and compensate for exclusion from formal religion in the Muslim world (Doumato, 2000). It is not surprising, therefore, that previous traditions live on—not as organized medical systems per se, but rather as numerous syncretic healing philosophies characterized by a multifaceted array of etiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic beliefs and practices regarding the nature of health and illness and the treatment of various forms of sickness. Thus, many of the Thus, many of the nurses included in the studies took time out of work to pray every day . 3. Cautery may be used directly on the site of a patient's bodily complaint (e.g., lower back, arm or leg joints), or it may be used on other sites of the body to "tighten" relaxed nerves and muscles. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. View Academics in Middle Eastern Health Care Beliefs on Academia.edu. In Sacred Journeys: The Anthropology of Pilgrimage, edited by Alan Morinis, pp. RELIGION: Islam; Chr…, Islam /Length 3990 Reviews of Books About Ancient Cultures. London, 1990. Signs 3 (1977): 101–112. Middle Eastern culture is very broad since it not only includes countries in Asia but also in Africa. In the early twenty-first century the zār is found primarily among the socially marginalized, who seek refuge in a healing fellowship with others who are similarly afflicted. Health Disparities: The Case of Arab/Middle Eastern Immigrants in The United States. Amulets may also be store-bought, such as small charms made of gold, silver, or other metals, or they may be made of brightly colored pieces of cloth, sometimes adorned with shiny metallic coins. For women in the Middle East, healing as well as the solution of other difficult life problems is a primary impetus for ziyārāt to saints' shrines. Many of these records provide an exquisitely detailed account of the medical systems and accompanying ideologies that gained hegemony in this region through the millennia, as well as the cultural and socioeconomic milieus in which they existed (Gran, 1979; Inhorn Millar and Lane, 1988). While each of the many countries commonly considered part of the "Middle East" is unique, there is a binding ethnic fabric that should be considered. The Mediterranean diet has garnered praise for its role in keeping the body healthy and staving … Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 8 (1974): 103–107. Today, the terms Eastern medicine and Asian medicine are more commonly used in this country, and perhaps they are the better terms. Berkeley, Calif., 1984. Neither domain has been well studied by social scientists or historians. LOCATION: Sudan Apart from being the largest religion in the Middle East, it is also one of the largest religions in the world. Yet despite official Islamic opposition, popular healing practices continue unabated, attesting to their power and importance in the minds of ordinary Muslims. Use of herbs from native plants. Even though most of the inhabitants are Muslims, some practice Christianity. These are some of the public health issues the region has to deal with today. We cling to the ancient teachings of curing mental issues and deny modern day approach, which sometimes people call the “Western world approach” to … For example, many countries in the Middle East still have arranged marriages and require that women cover their head and/or face to varying degrees. Inhorn, Marcia C. "Kabsa (a.k.a. >> While generalizations of Middle Eastern culture are readily apparent, some variation and extremes are found within the geographical area known as the Middle East. Middle Eastern Americans, overall, share visible physical characteristics, history in the region as well as in the U.S., religious traditions, including Mizrahi and Sephardic Judaism, Eastern Christianity, and Islam, along with a rich cultural heritage of common values, sensibilities in art, food, music, epic stories, etc. Family and friends should not be used to provide interpretation services (except on request by the patient/consumer). In the Middle East in the early twenty-first century, opposition to popular healing rituals does not come mainly from biomedical quarters. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Through the zār they find a social etiology for their suffering (i.e., harmful spirits), a sense of community solidarity with other similarly afflicted women, and a way to press for demands (e.g., new clothing, jewelry, feasts) through the idiom of spirit possession and the invocation of these spirits through joyful music and dance. Religion; Menu. For most Middle Eastern Muslims, it is a personal and professional third rail to call for the removal of religion from public life, let alone to call into question God’s existence. They do so either as "possessed" individuals, who use their own spirits to diagnose and treat other spirit-troubled individuals, or as skillful agents of spirit invocation, who make the wishes of others' spirits known, then appease those spirits through communal zār rituals or private rituals of animal sacrifice and the provision of gifts to the spirit world. POPULATION: 40 million State-of-the-art new hospital complexes and hi-tech equipment, along with plenty of well-qualified staff, cater for the rising prospects of national citizens. The Evil Eye: A Casebook. Healers often provide special instructions on how the written amulet is to be utilized (e.g., in bath water, in drinking water, worn next to the body, slept on, stepped over, or burned with incense, which in and of itself is deemed protective against harmful forces). Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 82 (1988): 277–280. This syncretic association of healing practice with Islamic prayer ritual is extremely significant, even though it is disdained by religiously literate orthodox Muslims. << Wombs and Alien Spirits: Women, Men, and the Zar Cult in Northern Sudan. Furthermore beliefs in harmful spirits and spirit possession are found across the Middle Eastern region, from Morocco to Iran. "Ziyaret : Gender, Movement, and Exchange in a Turkish Community." Materials and Methods The aim of this research was to identify and summarize the research conducted to date on the topic of spirituality and health within a Middle Eastern … In short, the ethnomedical treatments for infertility alone in one Middle Eastern country are amazingly diverse and complex, suggesting the richness of popular healing beliefs and practices in this part of the world. However, the date of retrieval is often important. For example, many countries in the Middle East still have arranged marriages and require that women cover their head and/or face to … Retrieved January 12, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/healing-and-medicine-popular-healing-practices-middle-eastern-cultures. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Furthermore as Fatima Mernissi (1977) has noted, Middle Eastern women's pilgrimages to holy sanctuaries are "power operations," means by which subaltern women can seek control over their sexuality, fertility, health, and general well-being in societies that tend to be decidedly patriarchal (Inhorn, 1996). Mernissi, Fatima. Historically prophetic me… There is a considerable intra-cultural diversity among Filipino Americans with regards to health beliefs and health practices. Indeed, it is women—not men—who are most actively involved in saint veneration and who are, therefore, the primary participants in the salvation-oriented ziyārāt to local and regional saints' tombs. ." For this reason, cautery is thought to be extremely useful for male infertility and impotence, both of which may be attributed to "weak nerves" in the back (Inhorn, 1994a). Philadelphia, 1996. The Mediterranean diet has garnered praise for its role in keeping the body healthy and staving … In the modern era, … Westport, Conn., 1992. Boulder, Colo., 1993. In Saudi Arabia, cautery has also been used historically as a favored technique to chase malevolent spirits causing emotional or physical illness out of the body, including spirits causing madness (Doumato, 2000). They have had an enduring influence on Western civilization. In the early twenty-first century, amulets are widely used throughout the Middle East for three primary purposes: (1) to prevent the deleterious envy (evil eye) that can destroy objects and lead to illness; (2) to nullify acts of sorcery, which are also thought to cause illnesses such as impotence; and (3) on a more mundane level, to treat physical complaints, ranging from headaches to fever. Strong religion beliefs often govern family life and their way of life. Social Science and Medicine 39 (1994b): 487–505. Middle Eastern citizens may adorn their most prized possessions (e.g., homes, automobiles) with the hand of Fatima to ward off the deleterious effects of envy. The Middle East is home to a rich medical history and is one of the few regions of the world in which written materials concerning health-related ideologies, practices, and professional standards date back literally five thousand years. Filipino Americans who have been in the U.S for a long time are more acculturated to the American health system than those who recently migrated. Islam. Harmony with natural environment (e.g., animals, plants, sky, and earth) is important for health. Preston, James J. According to medical historians, however, prophetic medicine was actually a syncretic blend of biblical Jewish medicine as contained in the Book of Leviticus ; Persian medicine as taught in the famous medical school of Gondeshapur, which was attended by several of the Prophet's relatives; nomadic Bedouin medicine as practiced in Arabia (particularly in Medina and Mecca) during the Prophet's lifetime; and Hippocratic-Galenic yunāni medicine from Greece. Thousands of Muslim pilgrims make ziyārāt, or visits, to saints' shrines, some large, some small, dotting the urban and rural landscapes of countries like Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt but also in Middle Eastern countries outside the Arab world, including Turkey and Iran. Islam; Pilgrimage, article on Muslim Pilgrimage. Under the rubric of waṣfāt baladī (traditional remedies) or it ṭibb il- ʿarabī (Arabic medicine), popular healing in the Middle East comes in many forms other than saint veneration. %���� Dundes, Alan, ed. While the United States has long been considered to be a nation of immigrants, the bulk of the newcomers during most of the nation's history were from the various European cultures with … To accurately evaluate and understand the mental health issues of the Middle East, one must take into account the geographic, historical, cultural, and social influences of that part of the world. A key principle shared by many Asian cultures is a holistic view of health, with an emphasis on balance and harmony between the individual’s mind, body, and environment (Trinh- Shevrin, 2009). Although pharaonic medicine and later yunāni medicine were extremely important literate medical traditions in this region of the world, this essay begins with a brief history of prophetic (Islamic) medicine, which arose during the period following the Prophet Muḥammad's death in 632 ce and which still represents an extremely influential healing tradition throughout the region. However, when this feeling consistently lasts over a certain length of time, it turns in to clinical depression. Islam. Philadelphia, 1994a. Madison, Wis., 1989. El Messiri Nadim, Nawal. When Mid-Easterners visit healthcare professionals for pain relief, they expect to be treated right away and given medications at the same visit. Secondly, unlike health care institutions in Europe at the time, the establishment of different hospital wards separated patients suffering from mental disease, contagious, non-contagious diseases, as well as a surgical department. Encyclopedia.com. Section 2 addresses Islamic beliefs affecting healthcare. Pain Management in Middle Eastern Culture. Doumato, Eleanor Abdella. LANGUAGE: Arabic; many distinct indigenous languages; English "Reading Saedi's Ahl-e Hava : Pattern and Significance in Spirit Possession Beliefs on the Southern Coasts of Iran." Patients and Methods: A total of 319 Middle Eastern refugees and migrants with hypertension were approached via various social groups in Australia and asked to complete Arabic versions of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire (BMQ) and the Medication Adherence Questionnaire. I was wearing […] 5 health threats facing the Middle East. Middle Eastern religion - Middle Eastern religion - Religious practices and institutions: Fertility of agriculture, of edible animals, and of the human population was a paramount factor in the life and religion of the ancient Middle East. Austin, Tex., 1976. The majority of people that make up the Middle East are we Arab Muslims who together share certain values, traditions, and old beliefs that are remarkably different from those of Westerners. Furthermore, we cannot address cultural issues in the Middle East without mentioning the religious healer. Berkeley, Calif., 1973. Adib, Salim M. "From the Biomedical Model to the Islamic Alternative: A Brief Overview of Medical Practices in the Contemporary Arab World." Encyclopedia of Religion. The essentially "female character" of local pilgrimage in the Middle East (Betteridge, 1983)—and men's accompanying embarrassment and even disdain regarding this activity—has been noted by a number of scholars working in various regions of the Middle East (Crapanzano, 1973; Doumato, 2000; Dwyer, 1978; Mernissi, 1977; Tapper, 1990). 127–138. Health Science project by Kate, Will, Alex, Andrea. Madison, Wis., 1992. RELIGION: Culture Awareness in Maternity: Middle Eastern Cultures Conception Postpartum Postpartum BREASTFEEDING Clinical Implications SOURCES: Many Middle Eastern Countries practice Islam Researching Middle Eastern practices is actually a look into Islamic Religion and Culture Healing, both new and old, is clearly a rich area for future scholarship, as suggested by the brief examples provided in this essay. Middle East culture and beliefs to pray several times a day, including while at work. Eickelman, Dale F., and James Piscatori, eds. It is the most important cultural factor that shapes people’s attitudes and ideologies. Typically, ziyārāt to the mosque-tombs of blessed saints are journeys that women make alone, allowing them the opportunity to demonstrate their agency and independence. The Daya of Egypt: Survival in a Modernizing Society. Betteridge, Anne H. "Muslim Women and Shrines in Shiraz." The most widespread religion in the Middle East is Islam. With rapidly growing economies linked to oil, tourism and the financial industry, countries in this area have a large population of expats from all around the world. Given the incredible diversity of the region, the Middle East is home to a rich armamentarium of popular healing practices delivered by multiple types of healers. In 1998, the World Mental Health Survey Initiative was conducted by the World Federation for Mental Health.The (WFMH) was originally created in 1948 and works in concert with the World Health Organization (WHO). Family is extremely important to Middle Eastern cultures and usually extends to aunts, uncles, cousins, etc. New York, 2003. The forms that the fertility rites assumed varied from region to region, depending on climate and geography. Inhorn, Marcia C. Infertility and Patriarchy: The Cultural Politics of Gender and Family Life in Egypt. There is a considerable intra-cultural diversity among Filipino Americans with regards to health beliefs and health … 1. Berkeley, Calif., 1990. 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